fifth chapter of Charaka Shareera sthana offers with “the person as an Epitome of the Universe”. The chapter identify is Purushavichayam Shareeram.
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Particular person and Universe
Now we will discover the chapter coping with “the person as an Epitome of the Universe” as conducive to the understanding of the physique. Thus mentioned Lord Atreya [1-2]
Particular person – an epitome of universe
A person is an epitome of the universe as all materials and non secular phenomena of the universe are current within the particular person and all these current within the particular person are additionally contained within the universe.
“Thus mentioned Punarvasu Atreya. Then Agnivesha enquired, “We can’t grasp the concept contained on this aphoristic assertion out of your enlightened self. “Lord Atreya replied, “Innumerable are the particular components of the universe and so are innumerable the particular components of a person. I’ll clarify to you a few of the gross phenomena widespread to the universe a effectively as the person, hearken to me attentively Agnivesha. Purusha is nothing however the mixture of the six Dhatus, i.e. Prthvi – earth, Jala – water, Teja / Agni – hearth, Vayu – wind, Akasha – ether and Brahman – the soul. [3-4]
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Identification of things in particular person with these of universe
Prthvi constitutes the type of man
Jala – constitutes the moisture
Tejas – constitutes the warmth
Vayu – constitutes the life factor / élan Vitae
Akasha – constitutes all of the porous components and
Brahman – constitutes the interior Soul
Identification of the varied common phenomena as current within the particular person is given beneath:
|Common Phenomena||Corresponding phenomena in man|
|1,2||Probably of the Brahman symbolized by Daksha Prajapati||1,2||Probably of the interior Soul symbolized by the thoughts|
|10||Visvedeva||10||All of the senses and objects of senses.|
|13||Starting of creation||13||Impregnation|
|16||Dvapara age||16||Center age|
|17||Kali age||17||Outdated age|
The above description is given solely by the use of illustration. There are numerous different phenomena widespread to the universe and man which could be understood by inference, O! Agnivesha. 
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Utility of the information of the Particular person as an epitome of Universe
Agnivesha once more requested Lord Atreya, “All that you’ve mentioned concerning the id of phenomena current within the universe and man is true with none exception. However then how is that this assertion related within the context of medication?”.
Lord Atreya replied, “Take heed to me O! Agnivesha. One who sees equality in all the universe in his personal self, and his personal self in all the universe is in possession of true information. Such an individual experiencing all the universe in his personal self believes that none however his personal self is liable for happiness and miseries. The person self being subordinate to his personal motion indulges in numerous actions solely when impelled by hetu (trigger) and so forth. As quickly as he realizes his id with all the universe, he’s in possession of true information which stands him in good stead in getting salvation.
The time period “Loka” implies right here a mix of a number of components. A congregation of six Dhatus constitutes all the universe consisting of all creatures. [6-7]
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Miseries and happiness of the Particular person
A person has a Hetu (cause), Utpatti (delivery), Vrddhi (progress), Upaplava (Decay) and Viyoga (dissolution). Hetu is the reason for manifestation, Utpatti is delivery, Vrddhi is progress, Upaplava is insulation or attainment of the pure state.
His attachment to the varied actions constitutes a causative issue of all his miseries and detachment a causative issue of cessation of all miseries. Realisation of the truth that ‘attachment results in miseries’ and ‘detachment results in happiness’ is taken into account as the true information.
This information could be achieved solely by advantage of the realisation of the id of the universe and man. That is the thing of instruction referring to the id of the universe and man. 
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Reason behind attachment and methodology of detachment
Thereafter Agnivesha requested, “What’s reason behind attachment and what are the components liable for detachment?” Lord Atreya mentioned, “Attachment is attributable to ignorance, want, hatred and purposeful motion. Ahamkara, Sanga, Samshaya, abhisamplava, abhyavapata, Vipratyaya, avisesa and Anupaya additionally come up out of attachment.
These components arising out of attachment would encroach and envelope a person, overcome (dominate) him and develop into all highly effective similar to a giant tree with many lengthy branches dominate (overcome) and overgrow a small tree and develop into all highly effective and encroaching. These components engulf a person to such an extent that he would discover it inconceivable to free himself from the clutches of ignorance and so forth worldly habits.
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Ahamkara represents an egoistic feeling. It’s to inform ‘I belong to the most effective clan, I’m endowed with the most effective of look, wealth, goodness, character, nice intelligence, nice conduct, good household / lineage, youth, valour / efficiency and affect.
Sanga represents that psychological, vocal or bodily motion which isn’t conducive to the attainment of salvation.
Samsaya stands for doubt concerning the existence of the results of the previous motion, salvation, soul, life after dying, reincarnation / rebirth and so forth.
Abhisamplava – contains imbibing or establishing the opposite’s high quality. It may be thought of because the mistaken notion of figuring out one’s soul with one’s physique. Instance – making statements like ‘in any given state of affairs, I’m second to none (I’m the final word)’, or ‘I’m the creator of the whole lot’ or ‘I’m a self established and completed particular person by nature’ or ‘I’m a mix of physique, sense organs, intelligence and reminiscence’.
Abhyavapata – It contains displaying possessiveness in the direction of the issues detached to self and which doesn’t belong to self. It’s a sense of possession. Instance – ‘telling I’ve father, mom, spouse, progeny, kinfolk, associates and servants and I belong to them’.
Vipratyaya – contains ‘contrasting perception’ like contemplating a fascinating act as undesirable, one thing helpful as non-beneficial or dangerous and the acts and issues that are auspicious as inauspicious and vice versa.
Avishesha – is lack of distinction when an individual turns into incapable of creating distinction between consciousness and unconsciousness, nature and its modifications, attachment and non-attachment (detachment).
Anupaya – contains non secular rituals that are inefficient. These rituals embody –
- Proksana – consecration
- Anashana – fasting / hunger
- Agnihotra – oblation to the hearth
- Trishavana – performing sacrifice thrice a day whereas worshiping soma
- Abhyukshana – wetting
- Aavahana – invocation
- Yajana – main or guiding sacrificial rituals
- Yajna – hearth sacrifice
- Yachana – begging
- Salila hutashana praveshah – getting into into water and hearth
The particular person turns into an abode of all miseries and can also be trapped within the vicious cycle of life and dying and won’t attain salvation if –
- he’s devoid of mind, restraint and reminiscence
- is egoistic and self centred
- is hooked up to things, individuals and actions
- is incapable of distinguishing between what is nice and what’s unhealthy
- is unable to tell apart between self (soul) and the bodily physique
The effectively being of the purusha – individually and in addition socially is the supply of salvation from all types of miseries which ultimately can also be the final word purpose of Ayurveda.
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Salvation and methods of achieving it
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Detachment is salvation
It’s Para (absolute)
It’s Prasanta (Serene)
It’s Akshara (immutable)
It’s Moksha (Emancipation)
We will now clarify the methods and technique of getting salvation. From the very starting the next represent the conduct and habits of a person who has realized the defects of the world and who’s desirous of getting salvation:
- Go to to the preceptor i.e. the one imparting directions on salvation
- To hold out his directions
- Unique service to the hearth
- To observe the prescriptions of non secular scriptures
- To grasp the which means of such scriptures
- To have endurance as prescribed in scriptures
- To carry out acts as prescribed in scriptures
- Devotion to the noble
- To stay away from the corporate of the depraved
- Dissociation with the depraved
- To make assertion that are true, helpful for all creatures and never harsh; such statements must be made after correct examination at applicable time
- To have a look at all creatures as in the event that they signify himself
- Avoidance of all contacts together with remembering, pondering, requesting and speaking with girl
- Avoidance of all acquisitions
- Sporting of Kaupina (loin- fabric)
- Sporting of saffron colored gown
- Having a needle case for the stitching of gown
- Having a water pot for sustaining cleanliness
- Having sacred Danda (stick)
- Having sacred begging bowel
- Taking prescribed meals solely as soon as a day simply to protect his life
- Having a mattress consisting of dry leaves, grass and so forth, only for relaxation
- Use of Yogapatta (a wood resting plank) for meditation
- Residing within the woods with out having any dwelling
- Avoidance of drowsiness, sleep, laziness and so forth
- Avoidance of attachment and hatred in the direction of the objects of sense organs
- Initiating actions like sleeping, staying, going, seeing, consuming, having fun with, motion of all numerous limbs (with a way of recollection of the character of his personal soul and so forth)
- Upkeep of serenity within the face of honour, reward, criticism and insult
- To face the onslaught of starvation, thirst, efforts, labour, chilly, warmth, wind, rains, happiness, miseries and sensory contacts non-disturbance by sorrow, miseries, respect, perturbation, vainness, greed, attachment, envy, concern, anger and so forth
- To view pleasure and so forth, as disturbing components
- To recollect the similar nature of creation and so forth, of the self and the universe
- To be afraid of suspending actions conducive to salvation
- To believe in yogic practices
- To be optimistic about non secular attainments
- To direct intelligence, endurance, reminiscence and power for salvation
- Restraint of sense organs within the thoughts (in order to not permit them to maneuver in the direction of exterior objects) restraint of the thoughts within the self and at last of the self in himself
- Realisation of various organs of the physique as composed of Dhatus (tissue parts)
- To comprehend that belonging to self
- To view all hooked up actions as sinful and
- To think about renunciation as a potent issue for happiness
- That is the gate solution to salvation. One finds himself in bondage in any other case. Thus the methods and means to salvation are defined. [11-12]
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Thus it’s mentioned
The vitiated thoughts will get purified by these purifying components as a mirror is cleaned with the assistance of oil-cloth, hair and so forth. Similar to the Solar dazzles when it’s not lined by Rahu, chilly, mud smoke and fog, the thoughts too shines when it’s in a state of purity. Whereas restrained within the soul together with his motion obscured, the thoughts, pure and secure, shines similar to the lamp shines with vivid flame within the lamp case. [13-15]
An individual together with his thoughts pure, is in possession of true knowledge
- which dispels the excessively thick darkness attributable to ignorance,
- which brings about detachment and information concerning the nature of all issues,
- which is conducive to the attainment of yogic energy,
- which renders a person smart,
- which brings about freedom from vainness and detachment from the causative components of miseries,
- which renders a person free from hopes,
- which brings about renunciation and
- which serves as a method to attainment of Brahman, the Everlasting, Immutable, Tranquil and Indestructible
It’s this knowledge which is called Vidya (studying), Siddhi (accomplishment), Mati (Jnana (information). [16-19]
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Impact of identification of the person with the Universe
If one realises himself as unfold in all the universe and all the universe unfold in him, he’s certainly in possession of transcendental and worldly imaginative and prescient. His serenity of thoughts primarily based on knowledge does by no means feed away. 
Cessation of contacts
When an individual visualizes the presence of the whole lot in all conditions, he’s one with Brahma, absolutely the. He does now not have any contacts with, the varied and sinful acts. 
Liberation from bondage
It’s not doable even to characterize the liberated Soul as a result of he has no contact by any means with psychological or different sense schools. So, being indifferent of all sensory contacts, he’s thought of to be a liberated Soul. 
Synonyms of “Santi (Liberation)”
Shanti (Liberation) is synonymous with Vipapa (free from sinful acts), Viraja (free from attachments), Santa (serene), Para (absolute), Aksara (indestructible), Avyaya (immutable), and Amrta (extinction of all miseries). That is non secular information after realizing which, the sages get freedom from all doubts, ignorance, attachment and needs attain the state of Prasama (absolute tranquillity) i.e. salvation. [23-24]
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To sum up:-
On this chapter with ‘the person as an epitome of the universe’, the sage has described the next subjects:
The widespread origin of the universe and the person along with goal behind the information of such a typical information.
Attainment of the pure state of the thoughts
Virtuous mind conducive to the attainment of salvation and
Thus ends the fifth chapter coping with “the Particular person as an Epitome of the universe as conducive to the understanding of the physique” of the Sharira part of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka. 
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